PHP substr function Definition

Returns the portion of string specified by the beginning and size parameters.

What is string?

The input string. Must be one character or longer.

Example #1 Using a negative start

<?php
$rest = substr("abcdef", -1);    // returns "f"
$rest = substr("abcdef", -2);    // returns "ef"
$rest = substr("abcdef", -3, 1); // returns "d"
?>

What is length?

If length is given and is positive, the string returned will contain at most length characters beginning from start (depending on the length of string).

Example #2 Using a negative

<?php
$rest = substr("abcdef", 0, -1);  // returns "abcde"
$rest = substr("abcdef", 2, -1);  // returns "cde"
$rest = substr("abcdef", 4, -4);  // returns false
$rest = substr("abcdef", -3, -1); // returns "de"
?>

Examples:

<?php
echo substr('abcdef', 1);     // bcdef
echo substr('abcdef', 1, 3);  // bcd
echo substr('abcdef', 0, 4);  // abcd
echo substr('abcdef', 0, 8);  // abcdef
echo substr('abcdef', -1, 1); // f

// Accessing single characters in a string
// can also be achieved using "square brackets"
$string = 'abcdef';
echo $string[0];                 // a
echo $string[3];                 // d
echo $string[strlen($string)-1]; // f

?>

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